The Time I Went From a 54% to an 89%

Staff Writer, Elizabeth Ossowska 


There always comes that point in the semester where high school students have a mini
existential crisis – freaking out about a 7% drop in an English mark or worrying about whether you’ll make it into the program you want in university. Especially at this time, as the year comes to a close, stress has a way of creeping into our lives – like at the back of your math classroom or around the corner in the hallway. This is perfectly normal because the nature of school itself (and the rest of life for that matter) is that of ups and downs – rushing and relaxing, studying and procrastinating, waiting and doing, listening and applying.
Okay…. so none of that information was new. Let’s have some story time, shall we?

Last semester I did something very abnormal (to my standards) – I took physics 20 in IB. I didn’t have to take the course in the least – in fact, none of the programs I’m interested in for post-secondary has anything to do with science at all. Yet despite my main interests being elsewhere I had figured since I liked math and I disliked biology, physics seemed like a fine fit. Not to mention that my mother used to be a physics teacher and really wanted me to take it.

As you can see, the stakes were high. The first day, I nervously wandered the upstairs hallway wondering where in the world 210 was, finally found it and took a deep breath and sat at the very back of the classroom. Turns out – I loved it. The class was fun, the teacher was funny, and I enjoyed doing the work. Everything seemed fine and good – until our first quiz.

Upon getting them handed back, the world turned upside down.
The paper crinkled in my hand as I inspected it for the writing in the red pen that we are all so familiar with – and when my eyes found it, the world stopped spinning as I stared in astonishment, not quite believing my mark. Think I got the big 100? Nooooo. Right there on my paper containing the summative quiz, there was a disease – a glaring angry red 54. I was barely passing physics.

By now most of us understand how it works – you do your homework, your mark reflects that. But here’s the thing: I did do my homework. I had done every single assignment we were handed on top of everything in the SNAP book yet I still got a 54.


The purpose of this story is that I know there are other people in the same boat. Maybe not as extreme of a situation, and maybe in a different subject area, but it definitely isn’t rare to completely underperform what you know you can do and get a markdown under. It’s not that bad to get a low mark if you put zero effort in – that’s an easy fix, and the mark is deserved anyway. But when you really did try… ouch.

Many people in these sorts of predicaments simply lose motivation. When I saw that 54 every time I logged onto PowerSchool, there was a hammer in my head slamming into my brain telling me that I suck at physics so I should just move on. It wasn’t even a crippling sort of feeling; more like an urge to give up. Why not focus on the humanities, or get a really good chemistry mark and forget physics ever happened? After all, I just don’t have the head for it, right?


Dead wrong! If you are studying very hard for a class and it’s not working, it isn’t you that’s the problem. What I realized with physics is that I just had to shake things up a little, modify and refine my studying habits. By using the tips and tricks listed below, my mark crept up from that 54 to a 73, then to an 87, and finally by the end of the semester to an 89. That’s over a 30% increase, just by changing the way I studied. Of course, there are other factors that went into this improvement – anyone who has taken physics 20 knows that it only gets easier and easier the farther along you go. A lot of other subjects are like this too though, so don’t throw in the towel just yet! Instead, try out some of these handy little studying tips:


– Talk to your teachers. This cannot be stressed enough!!! Remember that they are
people too, and you wield the power to make their day simply by striking up a
conversation with them. Teachers crave nothing more than personal connections to their
students – more often than not, that’s why they became teachers in the first place.
Bonding with teachers can be a much more useful tool than it seems, even though the
benefits are not as direct as studying. Additionally, there is nothing quite like getting one
on one attention, so if there is a concept with which you are struggling or a question you
can’t figure out, your teacher should be the first place to go. Just remember to show
some humility and bear in mind that they, like you, have good days and bad days – so be
mindful of reaching them at the right time. You’ll need these skills later on in life too,

- Get the big picture. It’s surprising how many students are like robots in the way they
study. School isn’t about mechanically doing your homework. Think about why you’re
learning these things and how they will be useful for you later on (if you’re unsure about
the practical applications of the subject matter, then ask your teacher). Not only does
goal setting boost motivation and make things more relevant, they teach you to get the
essentials. One of my biggest issues, when I began physics, is that I focused too much on
the nitty-gritty details. Yes, sometimes they are important, but you will be much better
off understanding the broader concept really thoroughly than you will be superficially
memorizing a bunch of uber-specific facts. Remember, key ideas are just that – key.

- Keep it neutral. If you find yourself hating a particular thing before even starting it,
check yourself! When learning new things avoid having some sort of prejudice about it.
Or, if it’s a recurring concept that you struggled with previously, fear not! Every class
and every day is a new start with a clean slate. Having a negative attitude towards
something new definitely won’t help your case, so it’s best to stay grounded and simply
listen without freaking out. Some common ones are phobias of graphs and fractions. I
used to hate graphs to the marrow until physics taught me that they are, in fact, your
friend. Another common one to hear that makes my blood boil is “I hate social”. Tell
yourself that and it won’t get any better, and it’s not like it’ll go away if you hate it
enough. Stay open to learning new things and you’ll benefit in the long run.

- Be present in class – not just physically. True, everyone has their days where the focus
seems impossible, and that’s okay. But, try to stay in the moment and pay attention to
what is being said. Write less and listen more. Notes are important for the key ideas, and
certain reminders, but the overall concepts will stick more easily if you keep your ears
open and your eyes off the page. And don’t be afraid of messy notes – you can clean them
up later.

- Give yourself some style. Your notes should reflect your personality, not simply be
copied off the board. Use different coloured pens/highlighters to help your brain make
distinctions in your notes, as opposed to a bunch of writing without separation (ex. blue
for definitions, purple for important reminders, green for examples; or even bullet points for definitions, stars for important reminders, lines for examples; etc.)

- Self-evaluate. It’s important to be self-aware of what you’re comfortable with as well as
the areas that need work. If there’s something you feel you strongly understand already,
you don’t have to spend extra effort on it – use that time towards areas in which you are less confident. Also, mark your own homework. There is no use in doing all the work if
you get it all wrong without knowing. The best things we can learn usually come out of
mistakes, and marking your own homework, specifically in math-science classes, is just
as valuable as doing the homework itself. And don’t just mark it and end there; figure out exactly where you went wrong so it won’t happen again.

- Don’t move on until you are sure you understand a concept. If you’re confused
at the beginning you’re only going to get more confused, so deal with the problem at its
root instead of ignoring it until the day before the exam. If you have a question, ask it
right away. Charging ahead won’t do you any good in the long run.

- Use the resources that are available to you. Wondering what I’m talking about?
The textbooks! Learn to appreciate those, because once you get to university they can
cost hundreds of dollars. As high school students getting them for free it is easy to take
them for granted, but your textbooks weren’t written by dummies – on the contrary, they
were written by specialists in the field who know exactly what it is you need to learn.
Especially in social studies, reading parts of the textbook may actually be more
interesting than you think, what with case studies and things. Textbooks also (usually)
offer nice summaries for each unit which can be used for review, as well as glossaries,
which I would very strongly recommend looking at in subjects like social studies. As for
the sciences, get the SNAP book! I found it extremely useful especially in physics, and
they’re quite reasonably priced. You’re not on your own with your studying, and if you’re looking for further resources to use simply ask your teachers about it.

- Revise, revise, revise!! There are studies out there that show that rewriting your
notes, and reading them out loud, will help information stick to your brain – and make
sure you write them by hand because typing just isn’t the same thing. There are different ways to do this – one very popular one is flashcards. If these work for you, use them. However, if you’re one of those anti-flashcard people (such as me), there is a different method that I like. At the end of each unit, I take all the important concepts we learned in class, or those that I know I forget more easily/struggle with, and condense them into my
own personal study guide. For physics, I used an abundance of diagrams (and colours!!);
for social, I use present-day situations or simple analogies to reinforce certain concepts.
My study guides are always centred on the core definitions we need to know, with
examples surrounding them. Whatever works for you is good though – as long as you try
to keep everything on one page that is easy to reference even right before your exam.
Which brings me to another note: never study on the day of the exam. Everything you
learn gets processed in your brain at night, so it’s literally no use trying to learn
something and apply it on the same day. The best thing to do on the day of the exam is
chill yourself out, not study. Which is another reason it’s handy to have a handwritten
study guide at your fingertips so that you can at least refresh your memory (which is not
the same thing as studying).

- Be flexible. This is perhaps the biggest point of them all. My main pitfall in physics was
that I tried using the same method to study it as I did for chemistry.
– Even subjects that seem similar must each be treated uniquely if you want to find
success in every one, otherwise, you will either get muddled and confused
between different subjects or you will find yourself focusing on all the wrong
things (as was my case where I tried writing my notes the same way in physics as
I did in chemistry). The tips in this list are like clay; it’s up to you to mould them into
their own shapes, and each subject will require something different. So stay in
tune with the subject matter and adjust yourself accordingly.
-Another changing variable is the teacher – different styles of exams or handouts
will also force you to change your approach. Remember, your teachers have 20-
30+ students and only one of themselves, so it’s your responsibility as a student to adapt yourself to the teacher, instead of complaining about the way your
teacher is doing things.
-Additionally, there is the factor of time; some people just have a knack for certain
subjects and have trouble with others, and those that are harder for you will
consequently require more of your time. Don’t try organizing your schedule so
strenuously that you have exact time slots for everything; that misses the point of
effective studying.
-Finally, the way you write exams should be different between subjects. In
math/sciences, it is key to trace your logic step by step. Whereas in the
humanities, you just have to go with your gut and avoid overthinking things.
Of course, everything listed here is only a glimpse at all the differences there are between subjects. For the others, you will have to spot them as you go and be flexible enough to modify your studying habits accordingly.

- Beware of:
– “Group studying” – unless there is specifically a group project that you must
complete, we all know that studying around friends becomes more talk and less
work. When studying, focus all your attention; leave your phone far away.
– Listening to music, especially when there are lyrics. Almost all experts agree that
music distracts more than it helps with studying. Unless it is purely instrumental,
pull out the earphones.
– Online answering sites, such as Quora. Any troll could get on the internet and
pretend to know what they are doing in answering your questions, so don’t trust
it. Instead, talk to a teacher or a tutor or someone else you can see face to face.
Besides, the information will probably stick better that way.
-Losing common sense. Sometimes we focus so much on the little problem that we
almost get insane (just ask Mr Pryma about his story with the math 30-1 student
who said that ½ + ½ = ½). Don’t be afraid to use the street smarts too, and whip
out whatever previous knowledge you have – after all, we didn’t go to school for
10+ years for nothing.
– Pushing yourself too hard. If you’re feeling tired while studying, stop. Listen to
your internal cues and know yourself.

- Some extra little tidbits to finish: 

-More time does not equal better memorization.
-TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF. Drink water! Take your body weight in pounds and
divide it by two: that’s about how many ounces of water you should be drinking
every day (average drinking glasses are 12 ounces each). And, the big one we’ve
all heard many times: sleep! We should all be getting at least 5 sleep cycles every
night; that’s 7 and a half hours of sleep. Of course, we all know that sometimes
that just isn’t happening, and really as long as you’re getting the minimum of 3
sleep cycles (4 and a half hours) that you need to be functioning okay you’ll be
fine if you stay up later every once in a while. However, in the two days before
your exam, it is crucial that you are getting those 7 and a half hours (ideally even
9) if you want to perform to your best potential.
-Avoid comparing yourself to others. A lot of the hardcore people in my physics
class finished with the high 90s, and I could never feel satisfied with myself if I
constantly held myself to the same standards. Just do your best and know that
you have plenty of strengths too, even if you haven’t discovered them all yet.
-Prioritize. To-do lists are your friend.
– Leave yourself some breathing room! Don’t be so intense in your studying that it
stifles other areas of your life – allow yourself to genuinely enjoy what you are

Hopefully at least something in this long list was helpful to you. Have a wonderful,
successful rest of the semester!


Students Last Semester of High School

Mariana Gutierrez Serna, Staff Writer 


Coming back from a stressful week of writing diplomas, taking a weekend to breathe and truly relax, straight to the beginning of a new semester. The last semester. We began our courses with the mentality that all of our energy, all of our concentration will be put into them. A week through and you realize that once already being accepted into university, your mind decides to not give a care about what happens. Wait we care, oh we care. Nonetheless, we would rather focus our energy on our long productive hours of Netflix, on our friends, on spending the money we don’t have on things that will not matter in a few hours, *cough cough* food.

Aside from the academic aspect of the school, the banquet and commencement are definitely things on our minds. The excitement of finally finding the right attire and with the paranoia of finding something you like that you know you can’t purchase because someone else already “called dibs” (and heck because you are too broke to even get it). The hassle of just thinking about the preparations for them, the ticket purchasing, the table booking, every single aspect seems exciting but also overwhelming. We want those events to be memorable, but it can definitely be an added stress in our lives.

We all can never truly understand how something feels till we actually experience it. The feeling that will take over once we sit and stare at our last question of our last diploma, when we take a look at every single one of our classmates and realize that they will never be a part of your life the same way they are in that moment ever again. It will not hit us till the moment comes. The unbearable feeling of leaving, and not be able to go back to those “careless” years.

However, our lives are truly shaped after leaving the doors of our high school. Our choices will define what we become, and they already have. This is the end of a chapter and the beginning of a new one. You’ve made it this far, so keep going. Congratulations.

Book Review: The Young Elites

Grace Pyne, Staff Writer


“Some hate us, think us outlaws to hang at the gallows.

Some fear us, think demons to burn at the stake,

Some worship us, think us children of the gods.

But all know us.”
― Marie Lu, The Young Elites

The Young Elites is the first book in a young adult fantasy trilogy by author Marie Lu. It
reached 4 th place on the New York Times Bestseller list and has a 3.9-star rating on Good reads. This book follows the story of Adelina Amouteru a sixteen-year-old girl, who was the survivor of a blood fever that swept through the nation and crippled the country. Not many survived and those who did come away with extraordinary abilities that defy the laws of nature. One can summon fire, another can control the minds of animals; they are called the Young Elites and society fears them. Adelina is just trying to live her life but when events start to spiral out of her control she seeks refuge with the dagger society, a group of Young Elites who hope to overthrow the tyrannical king and seize the throne. Adelina is in over her head; 2 forces grapple for control of her and the nation. But they will soon learn that Adelina is no pawn, and not to be crossed. When the line between good and evil blurs where will she turn and what side will she choose?

This book is a complex narrative that deals with a lot of heavy material and I will warn
you right away, if you’re looking for a feel-good fantasy novel this is not the book for you. This is the story of a villain, but it doesn’t really feel like that at all, it feels like the story of a sixteen-year-old girl who is forced into impossible situations with impossible choices to make. Choices with deadly consequences. I think one of the best parts of this story is how morally grey it is. As you get further into the book it becomes apparent that Adelina is a bit more than your average antihero but even as she dug herself further into the mess I kept hoping that she would somehow turn it around. She is human enough to sympathize with but evil enough to understand why she is the villain. And that is ultimately the best part of the book. Adelina, along with a fantastic cast of supporting characters can be seen as either heroes or villains depending on your values and beliefs. This book raises some interesting questions about the morality of certain situations and may make you question the way you perceive villains from now on.

The one thing that I wish this book did differently was developed the other characters a
little bit more. For the most part, the only characters you get to know are Adelina, Teren (the antagonist) and Enzo (the leader of the daggers). Yes, there are other characters and yes, they are important to the story, but they don’t get enough of a back story in my opinion. Had they been more developed I think it would have added a lot to the plot.

The other thing that I wish Marie Lu had added is some more details about the world that they live in. There are brief mentions to other countries and places in the book, but I honestly had trouble picturing where the story took place. When you create a new world in your fantasy novel it’s important to flesh it out. That being said, it’s not integral to the story that I know the whole history of this world but, it would have added another dimension to the narrative and elevated the story to a whole new level.

Overall, I really enjoyed this book. It’s a refreshing change to hear from the villain’s
point of view and Marie Lu does a great job getting me to sympathize with Adelina. I read this book in one sitting and the twist at the end left me in shock. I immediately placed a hold on the next book in my local library and I can’t wait to read it. But be warned, this book is not for the faint of heart as it deals with some mature themes such as mental illness and domestic abuse. If you are looking for a dark, YA book with compelling characters and an interesting storyline and you don’t mind some of the darker themes involved then this book is for you.


The young Elites

Cat of the Month: Froggy

Angelina Bustos, Staff Writer
Hey everyone! I’m the dog, wait no, the frog, no not right, the American Shorthair cat, Froggy. Yes, that’s right! My name and favourite activities seem to just confuse me. I blame my humans! Even before they found out my passion for frequent high jumps, they decided to name me Froggy on a strange whim weeks before they took me into their care. Now the name fits. As for sometimes confusing myself for a dog, well I do enjoy a good game of fetch. No one can blame me! My silly humans are always throwing plastic bags or cat toys around, someone has to clean up after them. All I ask for in exchange is their constant undying attention, which I can get by turning off the picture box with lights and sounds. They always talk to me after that even if they turn on the box again right away. Affection is all I need for me to love you! All I expect is belly pats when I roll over and my humans’ warmth.



Open House

Paola Andrade Sequera, Staff Writer

Last Wednesday, February 28 our school opened its doors to the public.
Technically, MAC’s Open House began at 7 pm. However, by 4pm, the school was brimming with the 300+ student volunteers. Meaning approximately a third of the student body was volunteering during that night —a number that speaks volumes. MAC knows how to bribe the students best: pizza.
This year, like many others, courses and clubs alike had booths in classrooms or in the atrium. For example, jazz band had a major presence in the atrium, with jazzy song bursting through the speakers as a greeting to the parents and (hopefully) future MAC students. Many clubs handstands in the atrium as well as representatives from each club. Photography Club, Film Club, Dance Club, Social Justice club, ASL club, Ski Club, Chess Club, and even more!! There were so many options to explore. Not too far from the atrium, father Dean visited our school; he was in the chapel, more specifically.
Going into the first-floor classrooms, amongst the most popular — as usual— is the classroom hosting French immersion and second language courses. Because they offered nachos, croissants with Nutella, and gelato. Nutritiously delicious goodies that the visitors could not resist. However, the SRC is always the most crowded area. A must-see for everyone visiting MAC, mostly because of the registration information to be found there.
At 8:30pm the drama department had the brilliant idea to recreate a scene from Heathers, this year’s musical production.
The CTS lab showcased some of their design studies projects as well as some interactive other fun activities. Have you ever played the piano using bananas as the keys? The open house was your chance!!
However, the classrooms hosting social studies and math (on the second floor) were very empty. Believably, it must be hard to find something to showcase in courses such as those. Unlike the sciences, who are able to show at least perform two entertaining experiments to grab people’s attention.
In addition to sciences and math, upstairs was the domain of the IB DP and MYP courses, where students showed their extended essays and personal projects alike as well as promoted IB.
Honestly, there is hardly enough time to explore all of MAC because of the number of different places to visit. Let’s make next year’s Open House even better!

Cat of the Month: Zap

Angelina Bustos, Staff Writer

Well hi, humans, felines and any other species reading this! I’m Zap, your friendly neighbourhood fluff ball! My story begins in a little closet where I was born nearly 2 decades ago. I guess I am super old, and I’m deaf now due to the old age, but that doesn’t mean I’m not a kitten at heart! I still love to run and play with my humans, whether it be with a stray piece of string or with a fiendish plastic bag. When I was a growing kitten, my entire existence was a secret. I lived in a no pet apartment, can you believe that! I made an excellent ninja-cat. At the apartment, I always saw these tiny sparkles around the picture box and at the outlets in the wall, of course, I had to investigate.  The humans weren’t sure what to name me yet, but they started calling me Zap for the static I made when I sniffed the “electricity”. If there’s one thing I love the most, it’s cuddling, but only with my special human. Otherwise, I can be shy, new people and situationsScreenshot_20180124-183537 make me kind of jumpy, but once I get to know you, expect cuddles at all times of the day and night! I think it just goes to show you, I may be nineteen years old, deaf and a little jumpy, but I can still melt your heart with my playful cuddly attitude and tendency to sleep in the bathtub.

An Introduction to Music Genres (3/3)

Ariana Valacco, Staff Writer

The 1980s and 1990s Genres
New Wave: As the punk detonation faded away, punk rock integrated its durable melodic
elements and sarcasm into pop music, creating a synthesiser-driven pop style jam-packed with melody and assertiveness.
Eurythmics – Sweet Dreams (Are Made Of This)

a-ha – Take on Me

Rap: a style of popular music, developed by disc jockeys and urban hipsters in the late
1970s and 1980s, where a recurring beat pattern provides the background and
counterpoint for rapid rhyming patterns intoned by a rapper.
The Sugar Hill Gang – Rapper's Delight

Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five – The Message

Hi-NRG: A musical style of dance music conceived in the late 1970s but perfected in the
1980s notably by the English production team Stock, Aitken and Waterman(SAW). Hi-
NRG is an upbeat style heavily influenced by disco, funk, and New Wave, characterized
by ostinato (a wide melodic range) synthesised bass, drum machines and heavily
processed vocals.
Rick Astley – Never Gonna Give You Up

Bananarama – Venus.                                                         

House: An electronic music genre created by DJs and producers in Chicago during the
early 1980s. Generally characterised no matter the “subgenre” by 4/4 beats,mid-tempo
drum machine rhythms, synthesized bass, and offbeat cymbals(Hi-hat to be specific).
M|A|R|R|S – Pump Up the Volume

f(x)-4 Walls

Glam Rock: Beginning in the 70s, but peaking in the 80s, glam rock was on the pop
influenced edge of the metal spectrum Glam rock surprisingly was a cultural and
a commercial phenomenon where stars of the genre captured the hearts of fangirls
David Bowie-The Jean Genie

The Sweet-The Ballroom Blitz

P-Funk: A genre of funk developed by the group Parliament-Funkadelic. The style is
characterized by electric bass lines, discreet drums, and piercing synthesiser melodies
transporting the hook. The style became prevalent in rap music during the early 90s as an alternative to sampling other people’s beats before gradually transitioning into other
western pop music genres.
Parliament-Funkadelic- Give up the Funk

Hyosung-Into You

Grunge: A rock subgenre that emerged during the mid-1980s in Washington State
characterized by distorted guitars, nihilistic lyrics, and anguished vocals.
Nirvana – Smells Like Teen Spirit

The Smashing Pumpkins – Today

Shoegaze/Dreampop: A pop music style that originated in the United Kingdom
characterized by layers of wall-of-noise distortion aiming for an introspective, ethereal
sonic landscape. The name “shoegaze” comes from the lack of stage presence the
performers of this genre had, often staring downwards at their shoes during concerts.
Cocteau Twins – Carolyn's Fingers

K-Trance- Hey Hey

Trance: An electronic music genre that developed in 1990s Germany that is
characterized by a tempo between 125 and 150 BPM, repeating melodic phrases, and a
musical form where tensions build and cumulate to 1 or 2 “peaks” or drops”.


Drum & Bass/Jungle: A electronic music style from the mid-90s that has quickly fallen out of fashion that featured fast breakbeats and heavy synth basslines.
Origin Unknown -Valley of the Shadows

High Contrast-Racing Green

Visual Kei: A Japanese metal style that reproduced the glam flair of 80s hair-metal bands
but with amped musical contrast and the gender ambiguity. The core musical
dissimilarity between Visual Kei and western glam rock is dynamic contrast, the heavier
songs are much wilder and heavier, and the ballads are soft and corny.
X Japan-Kurenai

Metalcore: A popular metal style that combines rhythms and vocal approach to
excessive metal styles with the simple riffing of punk.
Bullet for my Valentine-Waking the Demon



2000s Genres
Dubstep: a fleetingly fashionable electronic style featuring midrange prominent analog
synth riffs, a wobbling “wub” bass, and sparse, slow, beats. The tempo is usually around
132-142 BPM and the syncopated rhythm incorporates tuplets and shuffles.
Skrillex- Bangarang feat. Sirah

Tropical House: A subgenre of house that has a slower tempo(around 110-115 bpm),
instrumentation involving horns, saxophones, marimbas, pan flute, and steel drums.
Justin Bieber-Sorry

Winner-Really Really

Trap/Crunk: An aptly named genre that developed in the early 90s but is starting to gain
mainstream traction two decades later typified by slow synth beats and rhymes,
superimposed with sound effects and rapid hi-hat subdivisions.
CL-The Baddest Female

Miscellaneous Genres
Electro: A retro style that revisited various 80s sounds, most particularly gated drum
machines and substantial synthesisers, improved with modern songwriting and
La Roux-In for the Kill

T-ara- Like the First Time

Ennio Morricone Style: Ennio Morricone is a renowned composer responsible for the
soundtrack of The “Dollars” trilogy of Spaghetti Western films. His style melds 50s style
surf and tremolo guitar, powerful orchestration, and theatrical melodies.

Mina – se telefonando

Pet Shop Boys – It couldn't happen here

Mid-Tempo Ballad: Has the emotional feel of a sensitive song utilizing the same soaring
melodies but at a quicker pace.
1927- If I could

Soreal-My Heart Says

T-ara- I know the Feeling

Ballad: Slow and emotional songs often about romance, breakups or unrequited desire.
John Legend – All of Me

Red Velvet-One of These Nights

Things get solved if YOU get involved: Service Hours and Volunteering Ideas


Casey, Staff Writer

Wishing to participate in your community to serve others? Need service hours? Well, you’re reading the right article. As most of you are aware, all students enrolled in a religion course are required to contribute 10 mandatory service hours. Through volunteering, you’ll be able to obtain work related experience (which appears great on resumes) and complete the 10 mandatory service hours while you’re at it. I present to you the ultimate guide to volunteering which should pin an idea in your head where to start serving in your community! Remember, every little action helps!

Ideas for Service Hours:

– City of Edmonton (EPL, Capital City Clean Up, Leaders in Training, the Zoo, Muttart Conservatory, etc.)

– Local churches

– Hope Mission

– Edmonton Meals on Wheels

– Edmonton Food Bank

– The Mustard Seed (Coldest Night of the Year)

– Edmonton Festival of Trees

– Edmonton John Howard Society

– Edmonton Elizabeth Fry Society

– Edmonton Silver Skate Festival

– Senior Homes (Good Samaritan Society, Shepherd’s Care, Capital Care)

– Hospitals/Hospices (Capital Care, Royal Alex, U of A, Strollery Misecricordia, etc.)

– Edmonton Humane Society


– Taste of Edmonton

– Telus World of Science

– Junior High/Elementary (Former)

– Archbishop Macdonald (Open house, PE Department, etc.)

– Carnivals (K-days, Sustainival)

– Festivals (Edmonton Folk Music Festival, Cariwest Festival, Street Performers, Heritage Festival, etc.)

– Local Events (Farmers Market, Ice on Whyte, etc.)

– Habitat for Humanity

– Ronald McDonald House

– Local Emergency Shelters (Terra Centre, WIN House, etc.)

An Introduction to Music Genres (2/3)

Ariana Valacco, Staff Writer

1950s-1960s Styles
Bossanova: A Brazilian musical style that combines enticing jazz melodies and chords
with samba rhythm.
Elis Regina- Águas de Março

IU- Obliviate

R&B: An abbreviation of “Rhythm and Blues”. R&B songs were originally called “race music” or “race records”, the term truly meant nothing more than “music made by black artists instead of white artists.” After World War II, racism fell out of approval in
the US, so “race records” was not a suitable term. R&B however steadily evolved and seized on a charm of its own. Contemporary R&B(Whitney Houston, Beyoncé, Stevie Wonder, Usher, Justin Timberlake, Boyz II Men), is sonically different than the R&B of the mid-20 th century, and it certainly is not performed by only black people anymore. However, all R&B no matter the type shares vocals and melodies influenced by blues and gospel.
Boys II Men- I’ll Make Love to You

Beyoncé- Crazy in Love

Doo-Wop: A popular 1960s style characterized by tight harmonies, nonsense syllables, a
simple beat, and little or none instrumentation. The majority of doo-wop songs use the
same chord progression (I-vi- IV-V).
The Bobettes-Mr.Lee

Laboum-Sugar Sugar

Soul: Similar to R&B, the usage “soul” as a term is highly unclear and the expressions are often used interchangeability.
The Supremes- You Keep me Hangin On

Wonder Girls-Nobody .
Gospel: A genre of religious music characterized by focus on dominant vocals with
strong utilization of harmony and preferably a syncopated rhythm.

Mahalia Jackson– How I got over

Country: A string-driven style of music that developed in the southern USA in the 1920s stemming from Appalachian folk music and blues. Has grown into a mainstream “poppier” sound in recent years.
Johnny Cash- I Walk the Line

Kenny Rogers-The Gambler

Rock: Originated in the 1960s as a brasher, wilder version of blues played by artists such
as Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley. However, rock music (originally called Rock & Roll) developed into a true genre with the introduction of The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, and multiple other groups who drove rock away from the 12-bar blues.
Chuck Berry – Johnny B. Goode

Beatles – Ticket to Ride

The Beach Boys –Good Vibrations

AC/DC – Back In Black

Ska: A popular musical style originating in Jamaica that emphasizes fast off-beat
Lord Tanamo-In the Mood for Ska

Madness-House of Fun .
Funk: A rhythmic, danceable fusion of R&B/soul and rock music that evolved in the
mid-1960s with instruments played in syncopated 16-beat patterns.
The Commodores-Brick House

Brothers Johnson-Get The Funk Out Ma Face

Reggae: Developed from Ska and Rocksteady. The tempo of reggae is slower than Ska
but quicker than Rocksteady. Reggae features the guitar/piano offbeats, with stress on
the third beat, and syncopated melodic bass lines.
Bob Marley-No Women, No Cry

Fred Locks – Don’t Let Babylon Use You

1970s Genres
Metal: Certain elements of rock music became noisy and penetrating enough to qualify
as a completely different genre by about 1970. Metal also borrowed some of the forms of
classical music –such as extraordinary dynamic contrast, wunderkind playing, and pedal-point harmony Metal shares a few elements common with jazz, particularly the
substantial emphasis on technique, and the explosion of subgenres.
Deep Purple-Smoke on the Water

Black Sabbath-War Pigs

Disco: A genre of dance music initially popular amongst the LGBTQ, African-American,
Italian American, Latino, and psychedelic communities in New York City and Philadelphia that peaked in popularity during the 1970s. Disco stole funk’s loose rhythms but lowered the syncopation and increased the four-on-the-floor dance grooves, initially
using guitars and acoustic drums and subsequently with the assistance of drum machines and synthesised bass.
Chic-Le Freak

Bee Gees-Saturday Night Fever

Ailee-I’ll Show You

Progressive Rock: A psychedelic, symphonic meld of rock with genres such as
romantic music and jazz. Characterized by poetic lyrics and ornate instrumentals.
King Crimson- In the Court of the Crimson King

Genesis – Dancing with the Moonlit Knight

Punk: What ideologically began as a statement against 1970s prog rock but emerged as
the hybrid of pop and metal, preferring the same energetic sound but utilizing major-key as an alternative to minor-key tonality, appealing choruses and uncomplicated guitar work.
The Clash-London Calling

Dub: Jamaican Reggae DJs remixed the original tracks supplementing tape loops, echo
effects, equalization and filters, developing a new genre in the progress.
Scientist – Your Teeth in My Neck

Primary ft. Choa, Iron-Don’t be Shy

A modernized recreation of the dub reggae sound.
Electronica: Entirely electronically-generated music without any acoustic instruments
that existed in the realm of art-music ever since Musique Concrete movement of the
1940s. However, it was German group Kraftwerk that gave computer-driven music true
pop-cultural relevancy over 30 years later by merging electronic sound with catchy
rhythms and an eccentric pop aesthetic.
Kraftwerk – The Robots

Jean-Michel Jarre – Zoolookologie

Daft Punk-One More Time

Industrial: An early post-punk style that incorporated tape loops, stark, non-musical
percussion and heightened guitar for an experimental genre, severe and defiant in all the ways punk were not.
Einstürzende Neubauten – Kollaps

Front Line Assembly-Millennium

T-ara- Yayaya

An Introduction to Music Genres (1/3)

Ariana Valacco, Staff Writer

Classification can be a confusing entity, and that is especially true for music genres. You have probably wondered when is one piece of music one genre and not another? Where do those journalists and writers get those pretentious terms anyways? Of course, you could always search for these answers on Wikipedia, but what Wikipedia won’t give you is a genuine human connection with dynamic examples. If you have ever wondered how to tell your bebop from your Bossanova, your new wave from electronica, and your punk from your funk, then this article is for you.

Before I start rambling about all these terms, let us cover some basic music theory. It is just the fundamental points for one to make sense of the article in full. However, if you are not into reading you can always just peruse through the post for the songs alone.

1. Melody: the main sequence of notes, usually a rhythmical succession floats over the
backing. In pop music, however, the singer may carry the melody the majority of the time with exceptions in a solo or lead break, where an instrument temporarily carries the melody. Melodies are constructed scales, with the two most common types are major,
also known as Ionian scale(happy, joyful) and minor or Aeolian scale(moody,
complex)as well as many others. Essentially, scales are the map that guides and directs
you to the precise notes to play or sing to get certain types of melodies each with their
own unique moods and feelings.

2. Harmony: The vertical blocks of different tones that play simultaneously. Whenever
more than one note is played at one time it is called a chord. Three-note chords form the
heart of the majority of pop song harmony. Chords are made out of the same group of
scales as melodies, and consequently can also be major, minor, or something else.
Chords can be played by any instrument capable of playing more than one note
concurrently(guitar, piano), or instead by groups of instruments or singers playing all the
varied notes together at once, which is called harmonising or a harmony part. A choir
is an example of harmony singing. In this article, major chords will be in capital Roman
numerals and minor in lower case Roman numerals.

3. Rhythm: The arrangement of musical sounds according to duration and stress in
accordance with what you tap your feet too, also known as the beat. The majority of
modern pop music has 4 beats to a bar (the divide that is marked when a rhythmic
pattern repeats). Beat can be fast or slow and is measured in BPM (beats per minute). For
example, a typical uptempo kpop song from 2008-2011 would be approximately 130
BPM, but downtempo styles such as ballads can have the beats much slower than this.
The main function of drums and drum machines in pop songs is to emphasize the beats,
however other instruments and vocals cam emphasize(or de-emphasize) the beat
depending on how they are utilized in the song. A rhythm can be on the beat, off the
beat(between the beat), or even syncopated( a mix of on-beat and off-beat).

4. Texture: the tonal characteristics of the vocals and instruments used in the piece. Every instrument and voice has its own texture or tonal quality, therefore pieces of music sound very different from one instrument to another. Texture deviates not just by quality of the voice or instrument itself but also depending on how an instrument is recorded Classical Music Genres

Medieval: the first “classical” music style, with the longest period of musical theory
lasting from 500AD to 1400AD. The earliest musical notation of rhythm and melody
appeared during this period. Though mainly monophonic(a musical line, devoid of
accompaniment, such as the Gregorian chant), the first polyphonic music began to
emerge when monks began to experiment with the sacred chant, adding a voice in
contrary motion, singing in intervals such as perfect fourths above the original melody.
This musical development is known as organum and epitomizes the initial stages of
counterpoint and most important harmony. Many classic medieval folksongs such as
Greensleeves that also fit into this category.

The Kyrie Eleison



Renaissance: The “classical” music style from 1400AD-1600AD encompassing a range
of secular genres from the madrigals and chansons to the German Lied and the
Neapolitan Villanella. The music texture was lush and rich in comparison to earlier styles the practice of melodic counterpoint came into being. Melodic counterpoint is when two melodies are contrasted with dissonant (unstable and harsh sounding) and consonant (stable and therefore good sounding) intervals. Dissonant intervals were permissible as long as they led to consonant intervals. This practice of tension building with a dissonant interval in advance of resolving it to a consonant interval was called a suspension. Given time, this practice was developed to chords, hence the “suspended chord”.
J. Arcadelt-Ahime- ahime, dov'è'l bel viso” Sang by the Hillard Ensemble

F-ve Dolls-Can You Love me

Baroque: The “classical” style from 1600-1750 when harmony became standardized,
making music from this era extremely harmonious and melodious with little dissonance
to the sound.
Antonio Vivaldi-Four Seasons(Spring)

Johann Sebastian Bach- Tocatta and Fugue in D Minor

Johann Pachelbel – Canon in D Major

Classical: The style of music from 1750–1830 with a lighter, clearer texture than
Baroque and considered to be less complex(though all classical music styles are intricate
in design, so this does not mean all of it is easy. Primarily homophonic ( a strong, clear
melody over a chordal accompaniment).
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart-Rondo Alla Turca(also known as “The Turkish

Franz Joseph Haydn- "Surprise" (Symphony no. 94)

Beethoven – Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor "Quasi una fantasia"(Moonlight

Romantic: The music style from 1830-1910. During this era, composers focused on the
expression of powerful emotions in their music. Orchestras became larger in this period
and advancements in instrumental design allowed for greater volume and deeper bass.
The style is characterized by the extreme dynamic contrast between loud and soft segments.
Claude Debussy – La Mer

Tchaikovsky – 1812 Overture

Maurice Ravel – Pavane for a Dead Princess

Camille Saint-Saëns – Danse Macabre Performed by the National Philharmonic

Early Popular Genres
Flamenco: An acoustic guitar focused style originating from Spain. Characterized by
rapid fingerpicking, understated vibrato, and strong rhythmic embellishments.
Various Artists-Maleguena (la Maleguena)

The Seeya-Song of Love

Tango: A South American Music Genre originating from Argentina and Uruguay
popularized in the 19th century for partner dances. a blend of folk and chamber
instruments and key signatures in 2/4 or 3/4 time. Usually used in pop music to add a
sensual “sexy” effect.
Giorgio Consolini-Cuore tzigano

Sunmi-24 Hours

4Ladies -Move

Trot: The oldest Korean pop genre whose name originates from the ballroom dance
foxtrot because of its simple two-beat rhythm, even five-syllabic stanzas and unique
vocal style called Gagok. Trot developed as a modified type of Japanese enka that
entered the country around 1910 during Korea’s time as a Japanese colony. As time
passed trot has evolved due to Japanese and Western influences.
Jang Yoon Jeong-Omona

Tae Jin Ah – I Love You, Darling

Hong Jin Young-Boogie Man

Glam-In Front of the Mirror

Blues: A musical form that developed from chants of slaves in the southern USA in
conjunction with gospel and jazz. Characterized by emotional “blue notes” (a flat note
usually in the third, fifth, or seventh step of the scale), as well as harmonic rules that
distort the line between major and minor scales. The majority of blues songs have the
identical chord progression of (I-IV- I-V- IV-I over 12 bars, known as the “12-bar blues”)
with minimal variation.
Robert Johnson-Hellhound On My Trail

Lee Hi-It’s Over

Gypsy Jazz/Hot Club Jazz: A European jazz style born in Paris in the early 1930s,
identified by complex chords and nimble rhythms.
Django Reinhardt – Dinah,

IU-Love in B

Swing: Jazz played with a “big band” characterized by sweeping rhythmic “groove” and
large woodwind and brass sections.
Duke Ellington Orch – That Lindy Hop

IU-Red Shoes

Bebop: A jazz style developed in early to mid-1940s in the USA, characterized by a
reckless tempo, immediate alterations in complex chords and key signatures, and
harmonic structure based instrumentation. Bebop was intended to be listened to instead
of boogied to; therefore, the rhythms and tempos are often highly syncopated, fast and
not “dance-friendly”.
Charlie Parker and Miles Davis- A Night in Tunisia

Dizzy Gillespie-Ol’Man Rebop